cmd commands Here is a list of all Windows CMDs sorted alphabetically along with an exclusive PDF of CMDs for future reference for professionals and novices alike.
Command Prompt and CMD commands are unfamiliar territories to most Windows users, they only know it as a black screen for troubleshooting system problems with some fancy commands. cmd commands
If you are a Linux user, then you would know how commands play an important role in various system operations – like how we fiddle with Ubuntu’s apt-get commands to install, update or upgrade software. Unlike Linux, Windows is a user-friendly operating system and we don’t need to play with CMD commands at all to accomplish our task. In most cases, people only open the command prompt when they need to repair a damaged drive, hide certain drives, create a hacking-like environment, etc. cmd commands
What are Command Prompt and CMD Commands?
Command Prompt, also known as cmd.exe or cmd – command line translation application in Windows NT series operating systems. And CMD commands are a specific set of instructions given to the command prompt to perform some kind of task or function on your Windows computer.
Most Windows CMD commands are used to automate tasks through scripts and batch files, perform advanced administrative functions, and troubleshoot and resolve certain kinds of Windows problems. cmd commands
So here is an A-Z list of Windows CMD commands to perform the required tasks that you normally perform using the GUI. You can also use these commands to do some interesting hacks through Windows – which we’ll cover soon.
- Also Read : Trace Phone Numbers With PhoneInfoga in Termux & Linux
- Also Read : How To Install Alpine Linux On Android Mobile Without Root
How to access the command line?
Before we begin, let’s see how to open the Command Prompt program.
- You can run a command line program in three ways:
- Simply by typing cmd in the Start menu search box.
If you’re using Windows 8, you can access the command prompt via a command prompt shortcut in the Start menu or the Applications screen.
- Or you can press CTRL+R to open the RUN utility, type cmd, and press Enter
Note: Many commands can only be run if the command prompt is run as an administrator. To open an elevated command prompt — Find the command prompt shortcut, then right-click it to display the options pop-up menu and select Run as administrator from the pop-up menu. Accept any User Account Control messages or warnings.
A-Z Windows CMD Commands
|addusers||Used to add and list users in a CSV file|
|admodcmd||Used for bulk modifying contents in an active directory|
|arp||Address Resolution Protocol is used to map IP address to the hardware address|
|assoc||Used to change associations for file extensions|
|associat||One step file association|
|at||Run a command at a specific time|
|atmadm||Display connection info of the ATM adapter|
|attrib||Used to change file attributes|
|bcdboot||Used to create and repair a system partition|
|bcdedit||Used to manage boot configuration data|
|bitsadmin||Used to manage the Background Intelligent Transfer Service|
|bootcfg||Used to edit boot configuration in Windows|
|break||Enable/Disable break capability (CTRL+C) in CMD|
|cacls||Used to change permissions of files|
|call||Used one batch program to call another|
|certreq||Used to request a certificate from a certification authority|
|certutil||Manage Certification Authority files and services|
|cd||Used to change folder (directory) or go to a specific one|
|change||Used to change terminal services|
|chcp||Displays the number of active console code page|
|chdir||Same as cd command|
|chkdsk||Used to check and repair issues in the disk|
|chkntfs||Used to check the NTFS file system|
|choice||Accept user input (via keyboard) to a batch file|
|cipher||Used to encrypt/decrypt files and folder|
|cleanmgr||Used clean temp files and recycle bin automatically|
|clip||Copy result of any command (stdin) to Windows clipboard|
|cls||Clear CMD screen|
|cmd||Used to start a new CMD shell|
|cmdkey||Used to manage stored usernames and passwords|
|cmstp||Used to install or remove a connection manager service profile|
|color||Change the color of the CMD shell using options|
|comp||Compare contents of two files or two sets of files|
|compact||Compress files and folders on an NTFS partition|
|compress||Compress one or more files|
|convert||Convert a FAT partition to NTFS|
|copy||Copy one or more files to another location|
|coreinfo||Show the mapping between logical and physical processors|
|cprofile||Cleans specified profiles of wasted space and disabled user-specific file associations|
|cscmd||Configure offline files on a client computer|
|csvde||Import or Export the data of an active directory|
|date||Used to display the date or change it|
|defrag||Used to defragment system hard drive|
|del||Used to delete a file(s)|
|delprof||Used to delete user profile(s)|
|deltree||Used to delete a folder and its sub-folders|
|devcon||Access the command line device manager utility|
|dir||Used to display files and folders list|
|dirquota||Manage File Server Resource Manager quotas|
|diruse||Used to display disk usage|
|diskcomp||Compare contents of two floppy disks|
|diskcopy||Copy data of one floppy disk to another|
|diskpart||Make changes to partitions of storage, both internal and connected|
|diskshadow||Access the Disk Shadow Copy Service|
|diskuse||View used space in folder(s)|
|doskey||Used to edit command line, recall commands, and create macros|
|driverquery||Display a list of installed device drivers|
|dsacls||View and edit access control entries for objects in active directory|
|dsadd||Used to add objects to active directory|
|dsget||View objects in active directory|
|dsquery||Find objects in an active directory|
|dsmod||Used to modify objects in an active directory|
|dsmove||Rename or move an active directory object.|
|dsrm||Remove objects from an active directory|
|dsmgmt||Manage Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services|
|echo||Turn command-echoing feature on/off, display a message on the screen|
|endlocal||End localization environment changes in a batch file|
|erase||Used to delete on or more file(s)|
|eventcreate||Add custom event to Windows event log (Admin rights required)|
|eventquerry||Display list of events and their properties from event logs|
|eventtriggers||Display and configure event triggers on local and remote machines|
|exit||Exit the command line (Quit current batch script)|
|expand||Uncompress one or more .CAB file(s)|
|explorer||Open Windows Explorer|
|extract||Uncompress one or more Windows cabinet file(s)|
|fc||Used to compare two files|
|find||Used to search a specified text string in a file|
|findstr||Used to find string patterns in files|
|finger||Display information about user(s) on a specified remote computer|
|flattemp||Used to enable/disable flat temporary folders|
|For||Run a command in a loop for a file(s) for defined parameter|
|forfiles||Used for batch processing of selected file(s)|
|format||Used to format a disk|
|freedisk||Used to check free space on a disk|
|fsutil||File system utility to manage file and drive properties|
|ftp||Use FTP service to transfer files from one PC to another|
|ftype||Display/ Modify file extension type associations|
|getmac||Used to display the MAC address of your network adapter|
|goto||Used to direct a batch program to a line identified by a label|
|gpresult||Display Group Policy Settings and Resultant Set of Policy for a user|
|gpupdate||Update local and active directory based on group policy settings|
|graftabl||Turn on the ability to display an extended character in graphics mode|
|help||Display a list of commands and see online information for them|
|hostname||Used to display host name of the computer|
|icacls||Used to change permissions of files and folders|
|iexpress||Used to create a self-extracting zip archive|
|if||Used for conditional processing in batch programs|
|ifmember||Display the group(s) an active user belongs to|
|inuse||Replace the files which the OS is currently using (restart required)|
|ipconfig||Display and change Windows IP configuration|
|ipseccmd||Used to configure IP Security policies|
|ipxroute||Display and modify routing table information used by IPX protocol|
|irftp||Used to send files over an infrared link (infrared functionality required)|
|label||Used to change the name of a disk|
|lodctr||Update registry values with latest performance counters|
|logman||Used to manage performance monitor logs|
|logoff||Log a user off|
|logtime||Add the date, time, and a message to a text file|
|lpq||Displays print queue status|
|lpr||Used to send a file to a computer running the Line Printer Daemon service|
|macfile||Manage files server for Mackintosh|
|makecab||Used to create .cab files|
|mapisend||Used to send email from command line|
|mbsacli||Microsoft Baseline Security Analyser|
|mem||Used to show memory usage|
|md||Used to create directories and sub-directories|
|mkdir||Used to create directories and sub-directories|
|mklink||Used to create symbolic link to a directory|
|mmc||Access Microsoft Management Console|
|mode||Configure COM, LPT, CON system devices|
|more||Display one screen of output at time|
|mountvol||Create, list, or delete a volume mount point|
|move||Used to move files from one folder to another|
|moveuser||Move user account to a domain or between machines|
|msg||Used to send a pop-up message to a user|
|msiexec||Install, modify, configure using Windows Installer|
|msinfo32||Display system information|
|mstsc||Create a remote desktop connection|
|nbstat||Display NetBIOS over TCP/IP information|
|net||Used to manage network resources and services|
|netdom||Network Domain Manager utility|
|netsh||Display or modify network configuration|
|netstat||Display active TCP/IP connections|
|nlsinfo||Used to display locale information|
|nltest||List domain controllers, force remote shutdown, etc|
|now||Display date and time|
|nslookup||Check IP address on a Name Server|
|ntbackup||Backup data to tape using CMD or batch file|
|ntcmdprompt||Runs cmd.exe instead of command.exe in an MS-DOS application|
|ntdsutil||Manage Active Directory Domain Services|
|ntrights||Used to edit user account privileges|
|ntsd||Only for system developers|
|nvspbind||Used to modify network bindings|
|openfiles||Queries or displays open files|
|pagefileconfig||Display and configure Virtual memory settings|
|path||Set PATH environment variable for executable files|
|pathping||Latency and Packet loss info for each node in the network path|
|pause||Used to stop processing of a batch file|
|pbadmin||Starts Phone Book Administrator|
|pentnt||Detect Floating Point Division error in the Pentium chip|
|perfmon||Access performance monitor in CMD|
|perms||Display a user\’s ACL permissions for a file|
|ping||Test network connection to a computer|
|popd||Go to the latest path/folder stored by PUSHD command|
|portqry||Display TCP and UDP port status|
|powercfg||Used to configure power settings and know battery health|
|Used to print a text file(s) from CMD|
|printbrm||For backup/recovery/migration of the print queue|
|prncnfg||Used to configure/rename a printing device|
|prndrvr||List/add/delete printer drivers|
|prnjobs||List/pause/resume/cancel print jobs|
|prnmngr||List/add/delete printers, display/set default printer|
|prnport||List/create/delete TCP printer ports, display/change port configuration|
|prnqctl||Clear printer queue, print a test page|
|procdump||Monitor system for CPU spikes, generate a crash report during a spike|
|prompt||Used to change the Prompt in CMD|
|psexec||Run a CMD process on a remote computer|
|psfile||Display remotely opened files, close an open file|
|psinfo||List system information about a local/remote machine|
|pskill||Kill a process(es) using its name or process ID|
|pslist||Display process status and info about active processes|
|psloggedon||See active users on machine|
|psloglist||Display event log records|
|pspasswd||Used to change account password|
|psping||Used to measure network performance|
|psservice||Display and control services on a machine|
|psshutdown||Shutdown/restart/logoff/lock a local or remote machine|
|pssuspend||Used to suspend a process on a local or remote computer|
|pushd||Change current folder and store previous folder for use by POPD|
|qgrep||Search file(s) for a given string pattern|
|query process or qprocess||Display information about processes|
|rasdial||Display Remote Access Service Status|
|rasphone||Manage RAS connections|
|rcp||Copy files to a computer running remote shell service|
|recover||Recover readable data from a defective disk|
|reg||Display/add/change registry keys and values in Windows registry|
|regedit||Import/export/delete settings from a .reg text file|
|regsvr32||Used to register/unregister a DLL file|
|regini||Used to change registry permissions|
|relog||Export performance counters to other formats like TSV, CSV, SQL|
|rem||Add comments in batch file|
|ren||Used to rename a file(s)|
|replace||Used to replace a file with another file of same name|
|reset session||Used to reset a remote desktop session|
|rexec||Run commands on remote machines running Rexec service|
|rd||Used to delete a folder(s)|
|rmdir||Used to delete a folder(s)|
|rmtshare||Manage file and printer shares local or remote servers|
|robocopy||Used to copy files and folders that have changed|
|route||Display/change the local IP routing table|
|rsh||Run commands on remote servers running RSH service|
|rsm||Manage media resources using Removable storage|
|runas||Run a program as a different user|
|rundll32||Used to run a DLL program|
|sc||Use Service Controller to manage Windows services|
|schtasks||Schedule command(s) to run at a specific time|
|secedit||Configure system security|
|set||Display/set/remove environment variables in CMD|
|setlocal||Control visibility of environment variables in a batch file|
|setspn||Manage Service Principal Names for an Active Directory service account|
|setx||Set Environment Variables permanently|
|sfc||System File Checker|
|share||List/edit a file share or print on any computer|
|shellrunas||Used to run a command as a different user|
|shift||Change the position of the batch parameters in a batch file|
|shortcut||Create a Windows shortcut|
|shutdown||Shutdown the computer|
|sleep||Put computer to sleep for specified number of seconds|
|slmgr||Software Licensing Management tool for activation and KMS|
|sort||Used to sort and display a redirected or piped input|
|start||Start a program, command, or batch file|
|strings||Find ANSI and UNICODE strings in binary files|
|subinacl||Display/modify ACEs for file and folder permissions|
|subst||Associate a path with a drive letter|
|sysmon||Monitor and log system activity to Windows event log|
|systeminfo||Display detailed configuration information about the computer|
|takeown||Used to take the ownership of a file|
|taskkill||Used to terminate on or more running processes|
|tasklist||Display a list of running apps and services.|
|tcmsetup||Enable/disable TAPI client|
|telnet||Communicate with a remote machine using TELNET protocol|
|tftp||Transfer files to and from a remote machine running TFTP protocol|
|time||Display/change system time|
|timeout||Delay a batch file execution for specified seconds|
|title||Change the text on top of CMD window|
|touch||Change file timestamps|
|tracerpt||Process event trace logs and generate trace analysis report|
|tracert||Trace route to a remote host by sending ICMP request messages|
|tree||Display a folder structure in the form of a graphical tree|
|tsdiscon||Terminate a remote desktop connection|
|tskill||Terminate a running process on a RD Session Host server|
|tssutdn||Shutdown/reboot a terminal server remotely|
|type||Show contents of a text file|
|typeperf||Write performance data to a CMD window or a log file|
|tzutil||Time Zone Utility|
|unlodctr||Remove performance counter names and explain text for a service from the registry|
|ver||Show version number of installed OS|
|verify||Verify whether files are saved correctly on the disk|
|vol||Show disk volume label and serial number|
|vssadmin||Show shadow copy backups, installed shadow copy writers and providers|
|w32tm||Access Windows Time Service Utility|
|waitfor||Used to synchronize events between networked computer(s)|
|wevtutil||Retrieve information about event logs and publishers|
|where||Find and display file(s) in the current directory|
|whoami||Display information about the active user|
|windiff||Compare contents of two files or sets of files|
|winrm||Windows Remote Management|
|winrs||Windows Remote Shell|
|wmic||Windows Management Instrumentation Command|
|wuauclt||Windows Update Agent to downIoad new update files|
|xcalcs||Change ACLs for files and folders|
|xcopy||Copy files or directory trees to another folder|
And it is done! If you think we forgot to add any other cmd commands to this list, please let us know. Also, get a copy of the CMD command list in PDF format here. And expect more command-line tricks soon. Also, don’t forget to check the CMD keyboard shortcuts listed below.
Command line keyboard shortcuts
Here are some important CMD keyboard shortcuts to make your work on the command line easier.
|CMD Keyboard Shortcuts||Function|
|F1||Pastes the last executed command (character by character)|
|F2||Copies characters from the previous command|
|F3||Repeats the last command|
|F4||Deletes current prompt text up to the entered character|
|F5||Pastes recently executed commands (does not cycle)|
|F6||Pastes ^Z to the prompt|
|F7||Shows list of all previous commands from the command history|
|F8||Type character and press F8 key to cycle through matching commands|
|F9||Asks for the number of the command from the F7 list to paste|
|Up Arrow||Cycles through previous commands from the command history|
|Right Arrow||Auto-fills characters from previous command one by one|
|Tab||Auto-fills file/folder names|
|Alt+F7||Clears command history|
|Esc||Erases current line|
Command line keyboard shortcuts
Attrib (syntax: attrib) – You can use the attrib command to display or change the read-only, archive, system, and hidden attributes of any computer file or directory. You can run this command at the command prompt in all versions of Windows.
Background Smart Transfer Service (syntax: bitsadmin) – The bitsadmin command allows you to create and monitor downIoads and uploads. By default, it gives you access to information related to your tasks in the command window. However, if you want to access information about a task created by another user, you will need to run the command in a command prompt with administrator privileges.
Change Directory (syntax: chdir) – Use the chdir command to display the current directory and switch directories. For example, if you type chdir and press Enter, the current directory will be displayed. To go to the top level, type chdir\ and press Enter. This command is one of the most basic cmd commands and is available in all versions of Windows.
Check Disk (syntax: chkdsk) – This is a built-in tool in Windows that helps you find and fix hard disk errors. Depending on the size and condition of your hard drive, chkdsk may take a few minutes to an hour or longer to run. You can do the same with a tool like System Mechanic.
Cmd (syntax: cmd) – Use the cmd command to launch a command prompt from the run dialog.
Color (syntax: color) – This is one of the best cmd tricks you will come across. Allows you to change the background and text color of the command line window. To see the available color options, run color/ at the command line.
Delete (syntax: del) – You can use this command to delete files. Note that when you delete files with the del command, you delete them completely. So use this powerful command with caution.
Directory (syntax: dir) – The dir command is one of the most popular command line commands and lists all the files and subdirectories in a particular directory. It also displays other useful information, including the total number of files listed in the directory, the total amount of free space, and the drive’s serial number.
Erase (syntax: erase) – This command is the same as the del command. You can use it to permanently delete any file.
Exit (syntax: exit) – Do you want to exit the current command line session? Simply type exit and press Enter.
Find (syntax: find) – This is one of the most popular Windows command line commands. Allows you to search for a specific sequence of characters in one or more files.
Group Policy Results (syntax: gpresult) – Use this command to display the Group Policy that applies to your computer.
Help (syntax: help) – If you want to learn about the syntax and usage of a command, you should use the help command.
Internet Protocol Configuration (syntax: ipconfig) – This is one of the most useful cmd commands for getting network information. Displays the default gateway, subnet mask, and IP address for all network adapters. To run the command, simply type ipconfig and then press Enter. You will see something like this in the command line.
Ksetup (syntax: ksetup) – The ksetup command allows you to connect to a Kerberos server.
Logoff (syntax: logoff) – Run this command to end the user’s session from the command line. You can also use the logout command to end sessions on remote computers.
Create directory (syntax: mkdir) – As the name suggests, the mkdir command allows you to create one or more new directories within the current directory. In the screenshot below, I’m using it to create a new directory called “computer”.
Message (syntax: msg) – The msg command is one of the most interesting command line tricks. You can use it to talk to other users on the network through the command line, just like old computers that didn’t have a graphical user interface.
Net (syntax: net) – Use this command to manage various aspects of your network. Its settings include network users, network shares, and network print jobs, among others.
Openfiles (syntax: openfiles) – Use the openfiles command to view or unmount files and directories open on your computer.
Ping (syntax: ping) – The popular cmd command, ping, is used to find and troubleshoot network problems.
Print (syntax: print) – Did you know that you can print a text file from the command line in Windows 10? Just use the print command, which is also available in other versions of Windows. However, you can use this command to print only those files that you can access from the command line.
Qprocess (syntax: qprocess) – This command provides information about all running processes.
Rename (syntax: rename) – You can change the name of a file, folder, or directory from the command line using the rename command. However, you must have “write” or “edit” permission on the file, folder, or directory you are renaming to complete the command.
System File Checker (syntax: sfc) – If you suspect problems with important Windows files, you can check and replace them by running the sfc command.
Shutdown (syntax: scandisk) – There are two cmd prompt commands you can use to log off your computer. The logout command is the first and the shutdown command is the second. However, you can do much more with the latter, such as shutting down, restarting, and hibernating not only your computer, but also any other computer you have access to over the network.
Start (syntax: start) – Wondering how to open a new cmd window from an existing one? Just type start in the command line and press Enter. A new command window will pop up in a flash.
Systeminfo (syntax: systeminfo) – To learn more about your computer’s configuration, such as details about its BIOS, hard drive, processor, operating system, and other specifications, simply run the systeminfo command. You need a command prompt with administrative privileges to run this command.
Taskkill (syntax: taskkill) – Use the taskkill command to kill one or more processes from the command line.
Umount (syntax: umount) – You can use the umount command to remove network file system drives.
Ver (syntax: ver) – The ver command is one of the simpler Windows commands and allows you to check the current version number of Windows. When I ran the ver command, the following information appeared:
W32tm (syntax: w32tm) – You can use the w32tm command to diagnose Windows time problems.
Xcopy (syntax: xcopy) – Want to copy files located in one directory to another using the command line? Just execute the xcopy command. It is available in all versions of Windows.
A lot has changed in Windows 10, but the command line remains the same. It’s still a powerful tool and can give you access to several features that you won’t find in the otherwise intuitive Windows 10 GUI. This command line interpreter allows you to interact directly with your system, of course using the wealth of Windows Cmd commands available. In this post, I have listed many commands that will hopefully prove useful to the average Windows user. Thank you for reading!